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SAMPLE GRANT PROPOSAL:  AIDS HIV PREVENTION
Figure 2.  Proportion of AIDS Cases by Race/Ethnicity (National)
5
The national shift, however, was preceded by Alameda County as early as 1993 when African
Americans represented 48% of newly reported AIDS cases, although accounting for only 17.8% of the
county’s population.  By 1996 in Alameda County African Americans accounted for 55% of newly
reported AIDS cases (a total of 201 cases).
6
  For comparison purposes, in 1996 the national AIDS
rate (cases per 100,000 people) was 27.0
7
while in Alameda County, the rate was 84.5.
8
  These
figures imply that high risk behaviors remain comparatively prevalent Alameda County in general, and in
the African-American community in particular. 
Although protease inhibitors have greatly reduced deaths nationwide, the AIDS fatality rate
remains relatively high for Alameda’s African Americans (17% of cases reported in 1996) compared to
Caucasians (7%).
9
  Furthermore, African Americans represent 69% of pediatric cases (children less
than 13 years old).
10
  Most of these cases are attributable to congenital HIV transmission (i.e., babies
are infected when an HIV positive mother delivers). The number of pediatric AIDS cases is particularly
troubling given a new study of combination drug therapy San Francisco that reduced mother-to-infant
transmission of HIV to 0%.
11 
The relatively high death and pediatric rates imply a breakdown in the health services delivery
system:  Once diagnosed, African Americans are not taking full advantage of new life-saving therapies
5
Ibid.
6
Alameda County Public Health Department, AIDS Cases, 1996:  Alameda County Data Tables, 1997, pp. 6-11.
7
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, HIV/AIDS Surveillance Report:  U.S. HIV and AIDS cases reported
through June 1997, Midyear Edition, Vol. 9, No. 1, p. 5.  Please note that the CDC’s HIV/AIDS Surveillance Report
gives an AIDS rate for “Oakland, Calif.”  of 30.2.  However, “Oakland, Calif.” refers not to the city of Oakland, but to a
much larger Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) which includes areas of relatively low HIV incidence.
8
Alameda County Public Health Department, p. 7. 
9
Alameda County Public Health Department, p. 7.
10
Ibid., p. 4.
11
The study was conducted by Dr. K. B. of the Bay Area Perinatal AIDS Center.
25
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